The body's ability to balance is very complicated. Your eyes, your muscles and the inner ear's gyroscope mechanism send information to your brain. The brain then interprets this information and tells your body how to move to stay balanced and upright. A healthy balance or vestibular system compensates for daily changes in our spatial orientation.
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, dizzy, woozy, or have a sensation of movement, spinning or floating.
Since the balance system has so many components with interdependent functions, it is not surprising to find literally hundreds of different causes of balance problems, but the causes can be placed into three main groups:
1. Damage to the central nervous system
Any disease that interferes with the proper functioning of the central nervous system can also cause balance problems. Examples include abnormal heart rhythms, congestive heart failure, anemia, diabetes, dehydration and thyroid disorders.
2. Trauma to the inner ear or head
3. Other causes
In addition, as we age we experience a general decrease in vestibular function. The elderly also usually experience an overall decrease in vision, position sense (proprioception), muscle and bone strength, and brain function. All of these changes combined often lead to a slowly progressive feeling of imbalance.
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